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No. 102 



SEPTEMBER 1969 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 



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ONTARIO 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



HON. RENE BRUNELLE 
Minister 



G. H. U. BAYLY 
Deputy Minister 



No. 102 



SEPTEMBER 1969 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 



FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH 




ONTARIO 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



HON. RENE BRUNELLE 
Minister 



G. H. U. BAYLY 
Deputy Minister 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/resourcemansep1969onta 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 
TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 102 September 1969 



Page 

Disease and Parasitism in Wildlife in Ontario in 1968 1 

- Audrey Fyvie 

Sudbury District Hunter Safety Training Course in 9 

Secondary Schools 

- W. M. McKittrick 

Underwater Observations on Aircraft Planting of Large 13 

Brook Trout in the Tweed District 

- W. F. Cheshire 

- F. S. Day 

Use of Scuba Divers for Underwater Observations on 16 

Aerial Fish Drops 

- W. F. Cheshire 

Deer Range Improvement Parry Sound District, 1968 20 

- J. A. Macfie 

- C. A. Rettie 

A Comparison of Three Methods Used to Age Moose 26 

- D. W. Simkin 

The Development of A Unit for Sectioning Moose Incisions 38 

- E. F. Mantle 

Snowmobiles - A New Phase of Outdoor Recreation 44 

- J. A. Van der Meer 



Disease and Parasitism in Wildlife in Ontario in 1968 

by 
Audrey Fyvie 

In 1968, as in the past 3 years, the Provincial surveillance of wildlife 
disease and parasitism was accomplished by two procedures — one in the field and 
the other in the laboratory. In the field, the Fish and Wildlife staff, with the 
use of a diagnostic manual and an accompanying reporting system, recorded informa- 
tion relative to each occurrence of disease or parasitism that came to their atten- 
tion. These field report forms - Form Res. 49 - were received from 239 Department- 
al officers for the 1968 calendar year. Seventy-eight officers, representing 337 
of those returning Form Res. 49, recorded 254 occurrences of 13 diseases and para- 
sites in 10 species of wildlife (Tables 1 and 2) . 

At the Southern Research Station, the wildlife laboratory provided a diagnos- 
tic service for those cases in which the cause of death or identification of an 
abnormality could not be determined in the field. In this phase of the continu- 
ing surveillance of wildlife disease and parasitism, 107 specimens - 61 mammalian 
and 46 avian - were processed from January 1, 1968 to December 31, 1968. Diagnosis 
in all specimens was not always possible, usually because of post-mortem decompo- 
sition. The pathological and parasitological findings, in those specimens where 
diagnosis was possible, are given in Tables 3 and 4. 

The assistance and co-operation of the field staff of the Fish and Wildlife 
Branch in the completion of Form Res. 49 and in the provision of abnormal speci- 
mens is gratefully acknowledged. 



TABLE I 



Occurrences of Disease and Parasitism as Reported on Form Res. 49 
for the 1968 Calendar Year 





Number of 

Occurrences 

Reported 


Species and 
Number of Animals 


Number of 
Forest Districts in 
which Disease or 


Disease or Parasite 


Affected 


Parasitism Reported 


Cysticercus pisiformis 


12 


9 cottontail 
3 snowshoe hare 


4 


Cysticercus tarandi 


63 


63 moose 


13 


Cysticercus tenuicollis 


40 


38 moose 
2 deer 


10 


Dermacentor albipictus 


9 


9 moose 


3 


Dioctophyma renale 


1 


1 mink 


1 


Dracunculus insignis 


15 


8 mink 
1 otter 
6 raccoon 


4 


Echinococcus granulosus 


52 


52 moose 


11 


Fascioloides magna 


3 


2 moose 
1 deer 


3 


Multiceps serialis 


1 


1 snowshoe hare 


1 


Papillomatosis & Fibromatosis 


24 


21 moose 
3 deer 


11 


Sarcosporidiosis 


8 


5 black duck 
3 pintail 


6 


Shope fibroma 


26 


25 cottontail 
1 grey squirrel 


4 



TABLE II 



Occurrence of Disease and Parasitism by Forest District 
as Reported by Officers in 1968 







Number of 


Number of 


Number of 


Forest 
District 


Disease or Parasite 


Occur- 
rences 


Officers Forward- 
ing Form Res. 49 


Officers Report- 
ing Disease or 
Parasitism 


Chapleau 


Cysticercus tarandi 
Cysticercus tenuicollis 
Dermacentor albipictus 
Echinococcus granulosus 
Papillomatosis 
Sarcosporidiosis 


9 
5 
7 
4 
3 
1 


10 


7 


Cochrane 


C. tarandi 

E. granulosus 

Sarcosporidiosis 


2 
3 
2 


9 


4 


Fort Frances 


C. tarandi 

C. tenuicollis 

E. granulosus 

Fibromatosis 

Papillomatosis 


1 

1 
3 
2 

1 


12 


3 


Geraldton 


C. tarandi 
E. granulosus 
Papillomatosis 


2 
2 
3 


7 


4 


Kapuskasing 


C. tarandi 
C. tenuicollis 
E. granulosus 
Papillomatosis 


6 
8 
3 
1 


7 


4 


Kemp tvi lie 






12 





Kenora 


C. tarandi 

C. tenuicollis 

E. granulosus 

Fascioloides magna 

Papillomatosis 


7 
3 
2 

1 
3 


12 


7 



TABLE II (continued) 



Forest 
District 


Disease or Parasite 


Number of 
Occur- 
rences 


Number of 
Officers Forward- 
ing Form Res. 49 


Number of 
Officers Report- 
ing Disease or 

Parasitism 


Lake Erie 


Cysticercus pisiformis 

Fibromatosis 

Shope fibroma 


4 

1 

14 


19 


5 


Lake Huron 


C. pisiformis 
Shope fibroma 


5 
8 


17 


6 


Lake Simcoe 


Dracunculus insignis 
Multiceps serialis 
Shope fibroma 


6 

1 
2 


12 


4 


Lindsay- 


C. tenuicollis 


1 


18 


1 


North Bay 


C. tarandi 
C. pisiformis 
E. granulosus 


2 
2 

1 


12 


4 


Parry Sound 


C. tarandi 

D. insignis 
Papillomatosis 
Sarcosporidiosis 


2 
3 
1 
1 


13 


4 


Pembroke 


D. insignis 




8 


1 


Port Arthur 


C. tarandi 

C. tenuicollis 

E. granulosus 

Fibromatosis 

Papillomatosis 


12 

12 

11 

3 

1 


12 


4 


Sault Ste. 






12 


3 


Marie 


C. tarandi 

C. tenuicollis 

D. insignis 


5 
3 
3 







TABLE II (continued) 



Forest 


Disease or Parasite 


Number of 


Number of 


Number of 


District 




Occur- 


Officers Forward- 


Officers Report- 






rences 


ing Form Res. 49 


ing Disease or 
Parasitism 


Sioux Lookout 


C. tarandi 

D. albipictus 

E. granulosus 

F. magna 
Papillomatosis 


5 
1 
18 
1 
2 


9 


6 


Sudbury 


C. tenuicollis 
Sarcosporidiosis 


1 
1 


15 


1 


Swastika 


C. tarandi 

C. tenuicollis 

Dioctophyma renale 


9 
2 
1 

1 


4 


4 




E. granulosus 






Papillomatosis 


1 






Tweed 


F. magna 

Sarcosporidiosis 
Shope fibroma 


1 
2 
2 


12 


4 


White River 


C. pisiformis 
C. tarandi 

C. tenuicollis 

D. albipictus 

E. granulosus 
Fibromatosis 
Papillomatosis 
Sarcosporidiosis 


1 
1 

4 
1 
4 
1 
1 
1 


7 


2 



TABLE III 



Diagnostic Service - Avian Specimens 



Species 


Number of 
Specimens 


Forest District 


Diagnosis 


Duck-black or mallard 


1 


Lake Simcoe 




Lice - Family: Menopondiae 


Black Duck 


2 


Lake Simcoe 
Chapleau 


1 
1 


- Sarcosporidiosis 

- Sarcosporidiosis 


Mallard 


7 


Lake Erie 
Lake Simcoe 


1 
6 


- Trauma 

- Botulism (tentative) 


Lesser Scaup 


1 


Lake Simcoe 




Trauma 


Canada Goose 


5 


Lake Erie (all geese 
had been in semi- 
captivity) 


1 

1 

1 
1 

1 


- Shot-one pellet had 
lodged in a cervical 
vertebra 

- Starvation due to oeso- 
phageal obstruction 
(ball of fishing line) 

- Trauma 

- Avian tuberculosis 

- Gapeworm - Cyathostoma 
bronchialis 


Great Blue Heron 


1 


Lake Erie 




Fractured wing and 
hemorrhage in lung and 
thoracic cavity-shot 


Red-tailed Hawk 


1 


In captivity 




Peritonitis 


Pheasant 


2 


Lake Simcoe 


2 


- Trauma 


Pine Warbler 


1 


Lindsay 




Low level of DDE in 
liver 


Chestnut-sided Warbler 


1 


Lake Simcoe 




Low level of DDE in 
liver 


English Sparrow 


12 


Lake Simcoe 




Salmonellosis 


Bird Seed 


5 samples 


Lake Simcoe 




Negative for Salmonella 
typhimurium 



TABLE IV 



Diagnostic Service - Mammalian Specimens 





Number of 








Species 


Specimens 


Forest District 




Diagnosis 


Snowshoe Hare 


4 


Lake Huron 


2 
1 


- Multiceps serialis and Cysticercus 
pisiformis 

- M. serialis 






Kapuskasing 


1 


- Pasteurella pseudotuberculosis 


European Hare 


2 


Lake Huron 


1 


- Internal hemorrhage - shot 






Lake Simcoe 


1 


- Extensive adhesions in abdomial 
cavity involving omentum, spleen, 
liver, kidney and abdominal wall 


Lynx 


1 


In captivity 




Dehydration and gastro-enteritis 


Timber Wolf 


3 


Port Arthur 


3 


- Strychnine poisoning 


Groundhog 


2 


Lake Simcoe 


1 
1 


- Cuterebrid larva 

- Parasitic granuloma in brain 


Beaver 


8 


In captivity 


1 


- Stress 






Pembroke 


1 


- Unusually large splenic follicles 
-not pathological 






Port Arthur 


2 


- Strychnine powder in inguinal region- 
al - had been used to bait and poison 
wolves 






Kapuskasing 


2 


- Foci of necrosis in liver and spleen 
but unable to isolate and identify 
causative organism 






Chapleau 


2 


- Foci of necrosis in liver and spleen 
but unable to isolate and identify 
causative organism 


Cottontail 


4 


Lindsay 


1 


- Cuterebrid larva 






Lake Simcoe 


1 
1 
1 


- C. pisiformis and trauma 

- Cittotaenia variabilis 

- Shope fibromas 


Deer 


7 


Lindsay 


1 


- Fascioloides magna and degenerate 
hepatic lesions 






Tweed 


1 
1 


- Cephenemyia larvae 

- Soft fibromas 






Lake Huron 


1 

1 


- F . magna 

- Cysticercus tenuicollis 






Parry Sound 


1 


- Large fibroma (6 inches in diameter) 






Pembroke 


1 


- Chronic pleuritis and fibrino - 
purulent pneumonia probably of 
bacterial origin 



TABLE IV (continued) 





Number of 








Species 


Specimens 


Forest District 




Diagnosis 


Moose 


10 


Sudbury 


1 
1 


- Active and degenerate Cysticercus 
tarandi in heart muscle 

- C. tarandi in striated muscle 






Chapleau 


1 
1 


- Papillomatosis and Dermacentor 
albipictus 

- Active and degenerate. C. tarandi in 
tongue 






North Bay 


1 
2 


- Echinococcus granulosus in lung 

- C. tarandi in striated muscle 






Sioux Lookout 


1 


- F. magna and degenerate hepatic 
lesions 






Kapuskasing 


1 


- Purulent pleuritis and pneumonia 






Cochrane 


1 


- Nematode encysted in liver 


Domestic 


2 


Lake Simcoe 


1 


- Rhipicephalus sanguineus 


Canids 






1 


- Ixodes cookei 



Sudbury District 
Hunter Safety Training Course 
in 
Secondary Schools 

by 
W.M. McKittrick, Hunter Safety Examiner 



ABSTRACT 

Since it is compulsory for a first-time hunter 
under the age of twenty years to complete a 
Hunter Safety Training Course before writing a 
Department examination-Ontario Regulation 14/68 
-we submit the following: 



INTRODUCTION 



It is quite evident that our present Hunter Safety Training Programme is not 
geared to handle the number of applicants that we have in the Sudbury District. 
This statement may be supported by the conclusion drawn from observations and sur- 
veys conducted by this Department in the past year. 

Our observations and surveys consisted of contact with Hunter Safety Instruc- 
tors, the public, Department personnel and applicants themselves, in addition to 
correspondence with the public and observing Hunter Safety Training Courses. 

It was found that a great number of applicants were unable to obtain a Hunter 
Safety Training Course due to the following reasons: 

1. Location of Courses Many surrounding centres are without the facilities 
of a Hunter Safety Training Instructor and applicants find it difficult (and 
sometimes impossible) to commute between these areas and the City of Sudbury. 
We had thought this problem could be solved by acquiring instructors in these 
particular centres. This we were unable to do and applicants were still un- 
able to obtain the Hunter Safety Training Course. 

2. Time of Course It has been the practice of Hunter Safety Training 
Instructors to conduct training courses in the Fall of the year coinciding 
with the opening of hunting season. At this time of year, the instructors 
found that they were overrun with applicants and had to resort to the policy 
of "First come - First served". Thus, many applicants were turned away. Most 
training courses were given in the evenings thus curtailing the number of 
students able to attend the sessions. 

3. Facilities Some instructors were fortunate enough to have the use of 
school classrooms to conduct their courses; but the majority of instructors 
use old buildings such as garages, warehouses, basements, sheds, private homes 
etc. , which have not the classroom confort and teaching aids to hold the 
interest of the student. 

Many parents upon observing these slip shod courses declined to allow their 
youngsters to attend and took the attitude that "Hunter Safety Training 
Courses were of no real importance". The Department was criticized in such 
cases. 



4. Fees We suggested to all Hunter Safety Instructors in this District 
that the maximum fee for the training course be $3.00. This fee would reduce 
the cost of a licence, if obtained. Using this particular guide, it would 
cost a first-time hunter $9.00 to obtain a small game hunting licence. In 
many cases, instructors did not follow this guide and raised the cost of in- 
struction to such an extent that students found it too costly. 

It was also evident that there was a shortage of qualified Hunter Safety Train- 
ing Instructors in this District. We find that it is relatively easy to find some- 
one interested in becoming an instructor as almost every hunter fancies himself as 
a "Walking Hunter's Book of Knowledge" and capable of being an instructor. 

We have maintained that, since a Hunter Safety Training Instructor is approved 
by the Department and is responsible for instructing first-time hunters, we must 
have the best qualified that we can get. It is difficult therefore, to obtain 
the services of an interested individual who is not only versed in safe gun handling 
rules, game laws, etc., but who is also blessed with the ability to "instruct". 

Many areas are, therefore, without the services of a qualified Hunter Safety 
Training Instructor. 

A solution to the afore-mentioned problems was certainly required. After much 
discussion, it was decided to conduct a Hunter Safety Training Course in the Second- 
ary schools. 

Following is a detailed report of such a training course conducted at the 
Garson-Falconbridge Secondary School. We shall discuss the project under the 
following headings: 

1. Ground Work 

2. Instructors 

3. Course 

4. Examinations 

5. Conclusion 

1. Ground Work 

As early as January 1968, the writer had a discussion with Mr. Walter Shewchuk 
(a technical teacher at Garson-Falconbridge Secondary School) as to the feasibility 
of a Hunter Safety Training Course in a secondary school. 

We found that there were many problems and obtained the aid of Mr. Oliver 
Coley (Technical Director of Garson-Falconbridge Secondary School) . 

Mr. Coley became quite interested and agreed that he would look into the school 
system as to the possibility of such a programme. 

Mr. Coley reported that the programme seemed impossible as permission had to 

be obtained from the Department of Education, the School Board, School Principal, 

etc., and since the small schoolboards were being annexed by a District Superboard , 
the programme seemed doubtful. 

The Super District School Board came into effect on January 1st, 1969 control- 
ling 14 secondary schools in the City of Sudbury and the surrounding area. 

We then decided to make a proposal to the Sudbury District School Board re- 
questing time out of the school year in which to conduct the Hunter Safety Training 
Programme and that we would like the instructors to be qualified teachers from the 
staff. 

10 



The school Board passed the following motion: 

"That the Board approve the Hunter Safety Training Course 
and that Mr. 0. Coley (Technical Director at Garson-Falcon- 
bridge Secondary School) be asked to organize the course 
to cover four sessions of two hours each and that Mr. Coley 
obtain the services of qualified teachers. The course will 
be held in the evenings during April and May and the teachers 
will be paid at the night school rates". 

Then discussing the above motion with Mr. Coley, it was decided that the pro- 
gramme should be conducted as a pilot project at Garson-Falconbridge Secondary 
School in order to iron out all problems before introduction into the remaining 13 
secondary schools. It was also decided that the teachers would donate their time 
as there was some criticism of teachers receiving night class rates from the 
general public. 

2. Instructors 

Seven members of the technical teaching staff at Garson-Falconbridge Secondary 
School wrote the Hunter Safety Instructors' examination; six members were certified 
as qualified Hunter Safety Training Instructors. 

Teachers are professionals in the art of instruction; they are experts in 
putting across ideas - knowing when to push a point and when to continue to another 
topic. They are also acquainted with the students themselves knowing their back- 
ground and ability and are, therefore, able to aid a slower student, if necessary. 

We feel that, once these particular individuals are qualified as Hunter Safety 
Training Instructors, the first-time hunter will receive the best possible form of 
instruction available. 

3. The Training Course 

The course of study followed the Hunter Safety Instructors' Manual and a 
Hunter Safety Instructors' Brief prepared by this office. 

All necessary pamphlets, books, etc., and some fire-arms were supplied by this 
office. 

Mr. Coley organized the training course at the school. They took a preliminary 
survey during the week of March 10th to 14th to determine the degree of interest 
and the number of candidates. The interest was found to be high and 148 students 
indicated that they wanted to take in the course. 

Based upon this information, four classes were organized: 3 classes of one 
hour duration - 3:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m., and one class of forty minutes duration - 
3:00 p.m. to 3:40 p.m. (to accommodate those who required bus transportation). 

The one-hour classes were operated for five sessions and forty minute classes 
for seven sessions; the teaching load was spread and instruction rotated. 

A total of 87 students took the Hunter Safety Training Course. Mr. Coley in- 
dicated that the course presented no problems. It should be mentioned that the 
course was free of charge. 



11 



4. Examinations 

On April 28th, 1969, Conservation Officers Dave Cerutti, Mel Miller, Phil 
Gingrich, Assistant Fish and Wildlife Supervisor Jim Sheppard and the writer went 
to Garson-Falconbridge Secondary School to give the students their examinations. 

The written examination was given in the school cafeteria and the practical 
examination was conducted in four classrooms. 



Following are the results: 

Number of applicants examined 
Number of applicants successful in 
written examination 
Number of applicants successful in 
practical test 

Total Failure Rate: 



49 

45 (8% failure rate) 

41 (8% failure rate) 
16% 



5. 



Conclusion 



It is our belief that the project has solved the initial problems. 

The location of courses, availability of courses and classroom facilities, no 
longer present a problem as the majority of applicants with whom we are concerned 
are found within the secondary school. 

When comparing the failure rate of students who received instruction from 
private instructors and those who received instruction from professional teachers, 
we find a 10 per cent differential. 

We feel that this is a significant factor when evaluating the merit of having 
professional teachers as instructors. 

The total cost for students to obtain a small game hunting licence as a first- 
time hunter is six dollars. This allows many students to secure licences who would 
otherwise be unable to do so. We cannot, however, ensure that the courses will 
continue free of charge as this determination is left to the descretion of the 
school board. 

The manner in which the examinations were conducted proved to be a success 
and were carried out with a minimum cost to the Department. 

We have successfully instituted the programme into the secondary school system 
within this District. With the continued co-operation of the Secondary School 
Board we shall expand the programme into the remaining 13 schools. 

Acknowledgements 

Thanks to Mr. G.A. McCormack, District Forester, Mr. C.F. Bibby, Fish and 
Wildlife Supervisor, Mr. J.M. Sheppard, Assistant Fish and Wildlife Supervisor, 
all Conservation Officers in the Sudbury District, and Mr. Oliver Coley, Technical 
Director of the Garson-Falconbridge Secondary School for their assistance, criti- 
cism and suggestions which enabled the project to be a success. 



12 



Underwater Observations on Aircraft Planting 
of Large Brook Trout in the Tweed District 

by 
W.F. Cheshire and F.S. Day 

ABSTRACT 

Underwater observations on air dropped brook 
trout, 8 to the pound in size, indicated mort- 
ality rates as high as 25% could result from 
this method of planting. The effect of air 
dropping other sizes of brook trout into small 
deep lakes should be re-examined to determine 
how deep they may sink before they recover. 
Factors to consider are (1) the possiblity of 
experiencing oxygen deficiency before they re- 
cover, (2) the effect of deep water pressure 
on stunned brook trout, and (3) the possibility 
of smothering in ooze before they recover from 
an air drop. 



INTRODUCTION 



The district was faced with the problem this year (1969) of planting 65,000 
large brook trout (8 to the pound) . Consideration was given to planting these fish 
by air dropping. In view of the size of the fish, there was some concern on the 
ability of these large fish to survive an air drop. A test drop of 1,200 brook 
trout was made June 4th in Mosque Lake, Miller Township, Frontenac County, to 
determine whether these fish would survive an air drop. The fish were loaded at 
Pembroke, and were in perfect condition when loaded on the aircraft. 

SITE DESCRIPTION 

The test site was located on Mosque Lake in 20 feet of water. The bottom 
material consisted of mud and silt, and underwater visibility was estimated between 
12 to 15 feet. A secchi disc reading taken the previous year (between July 15th 
and 18th, 1968) registered 19 feet. 

METHOD 

A turbo _prop beaver aircraft (CF-OPA) was used for the test. The drop was 
made at 100 m.p.h., from a height ranging from 200 to 500 feet above the water 
surface. Two scuba divers (W.F. Cheshire, District Biologist; and F.S. Day, CO.) 
were located on the test drop site. Four fish drops were made (300 fish per drop) 
over the test site. When the fish hit the water, the two divers submerged. Two 
methods of observation were used. One diver (W.F. Cheshire) swam horizontally 
through the drop zone to observe as many fish as possible before they went to the 
bottom. Survival estimates were based on ocular estimates of fish seen. The 
second diver (F.S. Day) followed groups of fish to the bottom. 

The original plan called for setting out a temporary plot on the lake bottom, 
after the fish had settled to the bottom. The fish lying on the plot would be 
counted; after waiting 15 minutes, a recount would be made to estimate recovery. 
The initial check of the lake bottom at the test site showed the bottom consisted 
of mud and silt. Any appreciable movement of divers near the bottom over a limited 
area would stir up this material, making the value of counts questionable. In 
view of this, the plot technique was abandoned. 



13 



RESULTS 

The first drop did not hit the site where the divers were located, thus no 
underwater observations could be made. The divers then repositioned themselves to 
locate under the expected impact site. Starting with the second drop, the fish hit 
the water at all angles. Large numbers hit the water on their sides. Fish located 
near the centre of the drop zone hit the water spaced about 4 to 5 feet apart, 
while those located out from the centre hit the water anywhere up to 10 feet apart. 
One diver remained in the water until the third drop was made, while the second 
diver remained until after the fourth drop was made. 

About 50 percent of the fish were stunned from the impact and started to sink 
to the bottom. The remainder swam away slowly. Among those that started to sink 
to the bottom, about 50 percent recovered sufficiently to swim away by the time 
they reached the 10 foot depth level. The remainder sank to the bottom at 20 feet. 

It was estimated the divers were able to observe from 12 to 20 fish each on 
which to make ocular estimates. After the fourth drop, F. S. Day swam along the 
bottom to make a rough count of fish resting on the bottom. About 80 fish were 
seen. Fifteen minutes later, he swam across the bottom close to his former swim 
path and saw 6 dead fish. The bottom counts indicated that of those fish that 
sank to the bottom, 7.5% had not recovered after 15 minutes. 

The underwater observations were summarized as follows:- Of the 1,200 fish 
dropped, 50 percent were stunned on impact. Twenty-five percent of the total (or 
50% of those stunned) did not recover before they sank to the bottom at 20 feet. 
1.9 percent of the total fish dropped were still lying on the bottom 15 minutes 
later. The last estimate was arrived at by multiplying 7.57 by the proportion 
that sank to the bottom (7.5% X 25%). 

DISCUSSION 



Fraser examined the differential survival between air dropping and hand plant- 
ing brook trout (1968a). Fall fingerlings 43 to 69 per pound and yearlings 15 to 
30 per pound were tested. Subsequent test netting results along with the examina- 
tion of anglers catches showed air dropped fish generally experienced a lower sur- 
vival than hand planted fish. Fraser re-examined the effect of air dropping brook 
trout in a later test (1968b) by dropping them into a hatchery pond having a maxi- 
mum depth of six feet. Sixteen month old fish averaging 16.6 per pound were used 
in the second test, and it was concluded the air drop did not kill the fish. 

The brook trout used in the present test were larger (8 per pound) than those 
tested by Fraser (1968a and b) , and were definitely stunned from the impact. The 
length of time required for brook trout to recover after being air dropped into 
deep water could be important to their survival. 

Brook trout are generally air dropped into small lakes fifty feet and more in 
depth, where oxygen deficiencies may exist in the lower depths. If brook trout do 
not recover before they reach the oxygen deficient zone, which appears very likely 
in the case of fish 8 to the pound in size, mortality could be as high as 25 per- 
cent. So far there appears to be no information to indicate how deep smaller brook 
trout would sink before they recovered from an air drop. Brook trout normally do 
not swim deeper than 25 to 30 feet; the result of subjecting them relatively 
quickly to pressures greater than those experienced at 30 feet should be examined. 
A third factor to consider is, the bottom of many lakes used for brook trout 
management is covered with ooze; the possibility of the fish sinking into this 
material and smothering should also be examined. 



14 



CONCLUSIONS 



Large brook trout eight to the pound in size could experience mortalities 
as high as 25 percent if air dropped into small deep lakes where oxygen deficiencies 
exist at the bottom. 

The effect of air dropping smaller brook trout in small deep lakes 

should be re-examined to determine how deep they will sink before recovering 

from an air drop. Factors to consider are (1) the possibility of experiencing 

oxygen deficiencies before they recover from an air drop, (2) the effect of deep 

water pressure on stunned brook trout, and (3) the possibility of trout smothering 
in ooze before they recover from an air drop. 

REFERENCES 



Fraser, J.M. 1968 (a). Differential recovery of brook trout planted by hand and 
air drop. Trans. American Fish. Soc. Vol. 97 (l): 32-36 

Fraser, J.M. 1968 (b). Effect of air planting on domestic brook trout. The 
Progressive Fish- Culturist, Vol. 30(3): 141-143. 



15 



Use of Scuba Divers for Underwater 
Observations on Aerial Fish Drops 

by 
W.F. Cheshire 

ABSTRACT 

The writer has taken part in two diving operations 
designed to make underwater observations on fish 
dropped from aircraft. Experience from these dives 
has revealed that operations involving underwater 
observations on aerial fish drops have their own 
characteristic problems which differ to some ex- 
tent from those related to other types of diving. 
This report describes the problems encountered 
and recommends a procedure for dealing with them. 
The procedure outlined in this report is designed 
for water depths of 20 feet. For greater water 
depths, a tentative procedure would have to be 
designed and tested in the field. 



INTRODUCTION 



Scuba divers have been used on two different occasions in the Tweed District 
to make underwater observations of fish dropped from aircraft. The first was a 
demonstration drop put on at a workshop held at Bon Echo Park on June 21st 1964. 
A mixed group of brook trout and lake trout (30 fish to the pound) was used. 
Several drops were made during this first operation. The second occasion was a 
test drop of large brook trout (8 fish to the pound) made in Mosque Lake, Frontenac 
County on June 4th, 1969. A report was submitted on the last operation in June 
1969. (Cheshire and Day 1969). 

The writer, who is a qualified scuba diver, took part in the diving during 
both of the above fish drops. Although all divers accompanying the writer were 
experienced, none of them had been involved in previous operations of this type, 
and were therefore unaware of the problems characteristic to this type of operation. 
It has now become evident that operations involving underwater observations on 
aerial fish drops have their own characteristic problems which differ to some ex- 
tent from those related to other types of diving. 

The purpose of this report is to outline the problems encountered and suggest 
a procedure to deal with them. It is hoped that others contemplating underwater 
observations of aerial fish drops will benefit from the information contained in 
this report. 

PROBLEM REVIEW 

The problems dealt with in this section were revealed through the writer's 
experience along with a discussion with Mr. J. Kirk, pilot attached to the Tweed 
District. Mr. Kirk carried out the fish drops for both of the above mentioned 
tests. 

Poorly marked or improperly marked drop sites on the water make it difficult 
for a pilot to judge where the fish should be dropped. The fish drop may end up 
as far as a hundred feet from the divers. This situation could be corrected by 
using a conspicuous reference marker that can be seen by the pilot at all times up 
to the instant he releases the fish. Any miss drops could then be corrected on 
subsequent runs. 

16 



Many small lakes used for trout management in the Tweed District are 

surrounded by hills. The pilot has to consider the safety of the aircraft and 

rrew when making the fish drop. Glide paths used are flown into the wind, which 
limits the choice of directions the pilot can use in making the fish drop. 

There is an unusual amount of surface treading in deep water by 
divers in this type of operation, waiting for the aircraft to drop fish. This 
requires a considerable amount of energy if it takes place over extended periods. 

When the plane does not make the first drop directly over the divers, 
there is a definite tendency for divers to swim out where they expect the next 
drop of fish to land. Divers may end up a long way from each other (as much 
as 100 feet or more) where they are of no value to each other in the case of 
an emergency. In addition, they will most likely end up a long way from any 
support boat (as much as 100 feet or more) where they could not be rescued in 
time if this was necessary. If the person in the support boat is not an 
experienced diver, he will be unable to evaluate an emergency situation. 
Experienced divers follow a standard procedure instinctively when helping another 
diver out of the water. A person inexperienced in diving would not know how to 
carry out a rescue operation properly. 

Large fish tend to be distributed farther apart from an air drop 
than in the case of small fish. For example, large fish (8 per pound) may be 
spaced 5 to 10 feet apart when they hit the water (Cheshire and Day 1969). 
Underwater visibility in many inland trout lakes in the Tweed District is seldom 
more than 15 feet. (A secchi disk reading appears to be a fairly good indication 
of visibility underwater). Under these conditions a scuba diver may see only 
a few fish at any given location. In order to see enough fish underwater before 
they drop to the bottom, it may be necessary to swim horizontally 30 to 50 feet 
as .fast as possible. Smaller fish (about 30 per pound) tend to hit the water 
closer together, thus making it easier to see a larger number of fish at a given 
location. 

In order to make the best observations possible, it is desirable to 
have the divers located on the water as close as possible to the impact site where 
the main concentration of fish land. This requires accurate dropping on the part 
of the pilot, since it is easier for a pilot to adjust his flight path than it 
is for divers to position themselves properly in the water in relation to an 
anticipated impact site. In addition, divers should be located sufficiently close 
together for mutual safety, but not so close that they interfere with each others 
movements. The support boat should always be close enough so quick rescue can 
be made if necessary. 

Water depths on the test site are another consideration. The best 
observations can be made when the divers remain on the surface until the fish hit 
the water then follow them down. This means one descent to the bottom and one 
ascent to the surface is required after each fish drop. The divers then tread 
water on the surface waiting for the next drop. Four drops have been used in 
tests to date. 

GENERAL PLAN 



A dive should be carried out in the proposed test lake several days 
before the drop is made, to examine the water and bottom conditions. Several 
tentative drop sites should be selected in the initial stage. The most suitable 
condition for testing brook trout and for ease of diving would be a site with 20 
feet of water over a firm bottom such as sand or solid rock. A mud bottom 
might be considered, however, it should be kept in mind mud is easily stirred 
and could obscure fish lying on the bottom after divers swim over the spot. 
After the tentative sites have been examined, all individuals involved with the 
test drop, including the pilot and the divers, should meet to make the final 
test site selection and review all procedures to be used before and during the 
test drop. 

The dive crew should consist of four men: Two divers, one master diver, 
and a boat helper. The role of the two divers should be relatively obvious, 



17 



however, the role of the master diver may not be so clear. The master diver should 
be in charge of the dive crew, and be responsible for ensuring good communications 
between the aircraft pilot and the dive crew at all stages of the operation. 
He should also be an experienced diver familiar with rescue procedures 
and capable of assessing emergency conditions quickly. The master diver should 
be equipped to enter the water quickly in case a rescue is necessary. The boat 
helper should be able to operate a boat and motor, and operate a two way radio. 
The master diver and boat helper could be the same person, however, there would 
be no one left in the boat if it was necessary for the master diver to help in 
a rescue. 

On the day of the test drop, the dive crew should arrive on the site 
well ahead of the test drop time to mark the spot clearly. Figure I shows the 
recommended marking along with diver and boat locations to ensure adequate safety 
and communications at all stages. 

Communications should be established between the pilot and the dive 
crew as soon as possible so they can keep each other informed of their progress 
at all times. Direct communications between the pilot and the dive crew should 
be established as soon as possible. 

The person in charge of the dive crew should inform the pilot on the 
results of each drop, and provide direction so the pilot can position subsequent 
drops more accurately, if this is necessary. 

PROCEDURE DETAILS 



drop. 



The proposed dive sites should be examined before the day of the test 

On the day of the test, the following procedure is recommended: 

1. Dive team reaches selected site first, sets out marker and positons 
boat . 

2. Communication established between pilot and dive crew, 
reporting progress of each. 

3. Pilot establishes direct contact with dive crew as soon as possible, 
reporting expected arrival time over dive site. 

4. Pilot arrives at drop site, checks wind, marker, and boat. Pilot 
reports to dive crew on any changes required in drop plans. 

5. Divers enter water and prepare for drop. 

6. Pilot makes one dry run to check alignment. 

7. Dive master reports results to pilot and provides direction for 
corrections if necessary. 

8. First fish drop made. Results reported to pilot and corrections 
made by pilot if necessary for subsequent drops. 

COMMENTS 

The above procedure should result in better co-ordination of the 
operation, improved safety for divers, and better underwater observations made 
on fish drops. The procedures are designed for tests in 20 foot water depths. 
A test procedure for greater water depths may require modification. 

REFERENCES 

Cheshire, W.F. and F.S. Day, 1969, Underwater observations on aircraft planting 
of large brook trout in the Tweed District. Unpublished report. 



*4> 



& 



50' 



10' 

I 1 

D D 

T 



20 



BOAT 




Wind direction 



M - marker consisting of 1 gallon white Javex bottles, 
anchored to bottom. 



D - divers. 



Figure I. 



19 



DEER RANGE IMPROVEMENT 
PARRY SOUND DISTRICT 
1968-9 



by 
J. A. Macfie 

and 
C. A. Rettie 



ABSTRACT 

Twenty-nine Parry Sound District deer 
yards received deer range improvement 
treatment in 1968-69. 

A net area of 360.46 acres of forest 
was cut down to promote growth of winter 
food for deer, treating a gross area of 
6 620 acres of deer yard. A further 
50 net acres were scarified to promote 
seedling of hemlock for deer shelter, 
affecting a gross area of 320 acres. A 
total of $33,546.27 of cfeer range improve- 
ment project funds were expended in 
performing the work. 

THE PROGR AM 

The deer range improvement program for the Parry Sound Forest District 
was continued in 1968--69, when range improvement measures were applied to 29 
individual deer yards . 

A total of 410.46 net acres were treated, affecting a gross area of 
6,940 acres of deer yard. Treatment was of two kinds, removal of low grade 
hardwood forest to stimulate winter browse production, and scarifying to prepare 
a seed bed for hemlock as future winter shelter for deer. A full summary of 
work performed and costs and a small scale map indicating distribution of the 
work, are appended. 

S CARIFY I NG FOR HEMLOCK SEEDING 

In September and October fifty net acres of recent cutover were scari- 
fied in one deer yard to prepare a seedbed in a remnant hemlock-pine stand, with 
the object of promoting growth of future deer shelter. A 31 h.p. tractor 
equipped with a blade worked in old skid trails and other small openings, mixing 
litter and duff layers with mineral soil. Operating costs were $17.50 per 
net acre and $2.73 per gross acre. 

By the time the contract was let it was apparent there was no 1968 
hemlock cone crop, but the work was permitted to proceed on a reduced scale 
with the hope that the seed bed would remain receptive to a future seed crop. 
Plans for extensive scarifying projects elsewhere in the District were, however, 
abandoned and the maintenance funds so allocated were transferred to Salaries 
"B" for browse work. 

BROWSE IMPROVEMENT 

Twenty-nine deer yards received treatment to stimulate browse produc- 
tion. All of this work was performed by workmen using power saws and axes. No 
opportunity for using heavy machinery to lower second growth hardwood forest 
presented itself in any of the yards selected for treatment. The latter 
approach requires a uniformly low grade and young hardwood stand on reasonably 
level, deep soil on Crown land, a combination of circumstances that seldom occurs 
in Parry Sound District deer yards. 

20 



The practise of contracting browse improvement work was expanded to 
cover 80 net acres, or 22% of all work done. Operating costs were lower on 
contracted jobs than on those done with hired labour ($85.21 per net acre vs. 
$92.17). The jobs were advertised in local papers, advising interested persons 
to obtain copies of an Invitation for Tender (a copy is appended) for details 
A total of 13 bids were tendered on the two jobs. 

About one-quarter (247o) of the browse improvement work was performed 
on privately owned land. The net area treated for browse after deductions for 
thinnings where the intensity of a cut was under 75% of stems, was 360.46 acres 
of clear cut, and the gross area of deer yard affected was 6,620 acres. 

COST TO PROJECT FUNDS 



Salaries "B" Travel Maintenance Total 
Allocation $24,000.00 $600.00 ^700. 00 $34,300.00 
Expenditures * 23,780.02 353.81 9,548.07 33,681.90 

* From Accounts Branch Ledger. Differs fractionally 
from totals in the appended breakdown of costs . 

ORGANIZATION 

The work load was distributed throughout the District (see appended 
map). District office and field staff met in the fall to formulate plans, and 
Chief Rangers were then given a program and a budget. Planning and supervision 
of individual jobs was the responsiblity of the local conservation officer 
(although five projects were supervised in the field by forest technicians 
working under the direction of a conservation officer). Overall supervision 
of the District program was by the Senior Conservation Officer and the 
Wildlife Management Officer. 

ASSESSMENT 

The following program of assessment of the effects of deer range improve- 
ment has been formulated. 

C ROFT YARD #3 

This 800 acre yard containing about 40 deer was chosen for monitoring 
changes in browse availability and deer numbers following treatment after it 
was found to meet a number of requirements. It is discrete from other yards, 
had not been treated previously, contains a good proportion of Crown land, he 
good access and uniform terrain and forest cover, was deficient in deer food 
and is more or less typical of District deer yards. Last fall a 'clip and 
weigh' browse survey was conducted and photo points established, after 
which the northern half of the yard was treated for browse improvement , and 
the south half left as a control. A population and mortality cruise was 
conducted this spring. Follow-up browse and population surveys will be 
done at intervals. 

CARLING YARD #2 (KILLBEAR) 

A browse survey was done in this 2,000+ acre yard this spring for 
comparison with a similar survey made in 1962 prior to treatment (Edie and 
Henderson, 1969). Annual population and mortality surveys will continue. 

McMURRICH TOWNSHIP 

Plans call for withholding the entire Township from treatment for five 
years as a control against which to measure changes in hunter success in 
an adjoining heavily treated Township. However, demand for range improvement 
from McMurrich deer hunters may force abandonment of this plan. 



as 



21 



POPULATION AND MORTALITY SURVEYS 

Surveys were conducted this spring in eight treated yards (Rettie 
and Macfie, 1969) and will continue to be done annually except following mild 
winters . 

S TATUS OF THE PROGRAM 

Deer range improvement work has been performed in the District for 
seven consecutive years. A total of 1131 acres of low grade hardwood forest 
has been removed from shelter margins to stimulate browse production, and 68 
acres have been scarified to prepare a hemlock seed bed. Forty--five deer yards 
in 32 Townships have received browse treatments (several of them more than once) 
since initiation of the program in 1962, and two have had scarification to 
promote seeding of hemlock, 

In addition a number of commercial cuts oriented to deer browse 
improvement have been carried out and extensive marking of hemlock in Crown land 
logging areas to preserve deer shelter has been done. 

The number of deer yards that need but have not yet had browse treat- 
ment is dwindling. Many of the remainder are on privately owned land, and we 
are apprehensive of what effect introduction of the recommended form of agree- 
ment will have on our heretofor easy relationship with landowners. 

The time for starting a cycle of re-treatment cannot be far off for 
some of the sites treated in the early years, but the need will probably develop 
slowly unless a substantial increase in deer takes place. It is believed the 
intensity of treatment indicated by the 1969-70 allocation for range improvement 
(about 10% less than 1968-69) is adequate. 

REFERENCES 

Edie, Allan and John Henderson - Analysis and criticisms of browse surveys 
done in Carling #2 deer yard, Parry Sound District. 

Rettie, C. A. and J. A. Macfie - Spring deer yard surveys, Parry Sound District, 
1969. 



22 



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23 



APPENDIX 2 



PARRY SOUND 



ADMINISTRATIVE 
DISTRICT 



DRI PROJECT LOCATIONS 
1968-69 




REVISION 



DATE 


REMARKS 





















AREAS (IN SQUARE MILES) 




ADMINISTRATIVE 


FIRE DISTRICT 


LAND 


WATER 


TOTAL 


LAND 


WATER 


TOTAL 


5,552 


3,0 3 1 


8,583 


5,552 


3,031 


8,583 



MILES 



20 15 10 



20 



40 



• ADMINISTRATIVE WATER AREA INCLUDES 2,323 SQUARE MILES 

OF GEORGIAN BAY. w _ 

FIRE DISTRICT BOUNDARIES ARE ACCORDING TO O.R. 96/53 ON ' A R I O 

ADMINISTRATIVE AND FIRE DISTRICT BOUNDARIES ARE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS 8 FORESTS 



IDENTICAL. 
FORM FP 25 A 



15 JUNE I960 



24 



APPENDIX III 



ONTARIO 
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



INVITATION FOR TENDERS 



Patch-cutting of trees for deer range improvement 
purposes in Boulter, Hardy, East Mills and 
McConkey Townships 

Job #1 -- Boulter Township 

Hardwood bush is to be clear cut in marked strips 
and patches totalling 30 acres more or less on: 
Lots 22-26, Con. VI and VII 
25 & 26, Con. V 

Job #2 - East Mills, Hardy and McConkey Townships 

Hardwood bush is to be clear cut in marked strips 

and patches in the three locations totalling 50^ 

acres more or less: 

East Mills Twp. Lots 9-13, Con. XIV 

East Mills Twp. Lots 34-35, Con. VIII 

Hardy Twp. Lots 9-13, Con. I 

McConkey Twp. Lots 5-9, Con VIII and IX 

The work is to follow established deer browse improvement methods, 
using power saws and axes to clear cut second growth and cull hardwood trees 
in patches varying from 1/10 acre to 1/2 acre in size. If you have not pre- 
viously worked on a browse improvement project we strongly advise you to visit 
the site of a previous operation so that you may familiarize yourself with the 
manner of cutting and of handling brush. 

Tendering will be done on a per acre basis. A Department of Lands 
and Forests employee will act as job foreman, selecting areas to treat, check- 
ing quality of work and recording work performed. In the case of Job #2 a 
work crew is to consist of not less than 4 and not more than 6 men. A minimum 
crew of 2 men is required for Job #1. 

A successful tenderer will supply all equipment, including saws, axes 
and fuel, and transportation including road transportation, power toboggan and 
sleigh, and must be prepared to provide toboggan transportation for the Depart- 
ment foreman. If a bush camp is necessary, accommodation and provisions will 
be the responsibility of the tenderer. A successful tenderer will be required 
to provide evidence of coverage for his employees under the Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Act. 

The work will be performed during some period between December 1, 
1968 and February 28, 1969. The starting date may be influenced by the work 
schedule of the Department foreman. 

To obtain tender forms write to the District Forester, 4 Miller 
Street, Parry Sound, stating which job you wish to quote on. Requests for 
tender forms must reach the above office not later than November 8, 1968. 

The lowest or any tender will not necessarily be accepted. 

25 



A COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS USED TO AGE MOOSE 

D. W. Simkin 
Maple, Ontario 



INTRODUCTION 



The purpose of this paper is to compare the results of aging a sample 
of hunter-killed moose (Alces alces ) by three techniques - wear-class (Passmore 
et al , 1955), sectioned incisor cementum ring count (Sergeant and Pimlott , 1959) 
and eye lens weights. 

All of the specimens used in this study came from moose killed by 
hunters during the first two weeks of October in the past three years. They 
were obtained at a checking station located on the highway to Red Lake in 
northwestern Ontario (Simkin, 1965). Hunters contacted at this station obtained 
their moose in an area of approximately 3,500 square miles lying to the north 
of the checking station. Lower mandibles used for comparisons between wear-class 
and cementum ring counts were obtained during the 1964, 1965 and 1966 seasons. 
Eye lenses were collected during the 1965 and 1966 seasons. 

For many years the only method available for aging moose was the 
comparison of wear patterns on the molariform teeth. As with all big game 
aging techniques based on tooth wear pattern, the reliability of the criteria 
is questionable since there is reason to suspect that wear patterns will vary 
with food habits, nutrition, etc. Also, the technique limited the value of age 
data so obtained because the five older wear-classes were believed to exhibit 
an unknown amount of overlap in ages. Another weakness was that application of 
the aging criteria was at best subjective, and often an averaging of estimated 
tooth erosion from right to left side or from premolars to molars had to be 
arbitrarily made. 

Cementum ring counts from sectioned incisors (Sergeant and Pimlott, 
1959) appeared to be a much more promising technique as it was objective and 
ages could be determined to the nearest year. Although correlation between 
cementum ring counts and actual age has only been published for one moose 
(Sergeant and Pimlott, 1959), several papers have subsequently been published 
which validated the use of cementum ring counts for other North American cervids. 
These include, black-tailed deer ( Odocoileus hemionus columbianu s) (Low and Cowan 
1963), barren ground caribou ( Rangifer tarandus ; (McEwan, 1963) and white-tailed 
deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) (Gilbert , 1966 and Ransom, 1966). Throughout this 
paper I will use cementum ring count and actual age synonymously. 

Since 1959 when Lord published a paper showing that eye lens weight 
increased with age in cottontail rabbits ( Sylvilagus f loridanus ) , many workers 
have evaluated this method for aging different animals^ These studies have 
included gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus f loridanus) (Lord, 1961), Europeon 
rabbit ( Or ycrolagus ~ cuni cuius ; (Dudzinski and Mykytswycz, 1961), raccoon 
( Procyon lotor ) ^Sanderson, 1961 ), pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana ) 
(Kolenosky and Miller, 1962) fox squirrel ( Sciurus niger ; (Beaie, 1962;, 
white-tailed deer (Lord, 1962), fur seal ( Callorhinus ursmus ) (Bauer et al 
1964), black-tailed deer (Longhurst, 1964;, howler monkey ( Alouatta caraya ) 
(Malinow and Corcoran, 1966) and mule deer foetus ( Odocoileus hemionus" ) 
(Nellis, 1966). In general, the technique gives good separation of ages for 
younger animals but exhibits considerable overlap in older age classes. As 
with the cementum ring count, a virtue of the technique is that it is an 
objective one. 



This paper included in the Proceedings of the Northeast Section of the Wildlife 
Society, Quebec, P.Q. , Feb. 12-15, 1967 and the North American Moose Meeting, 
Soldatne, A laska, August, 1968. 



26 



METHODS 

During 1964, 1965 and 1966 all of the hunters passing through the 
checking station on their way into the hunting area were requested to save 
the entire lower jaw from any moose which they killed. In 1965 and 1966 they 
were also presented with 4 oz. bottles containing about 5 cc of formaldehyde. 
They were instructed to remove an eye from their moose, place it in the bottle 
containing formaldehyde and then fill the bottle with water. This resulted in 
the tissue being immersed in about a 10% solution of formalin. Hunters were 
also instructed to mark the lower jaws and the bottles containing eyes so 
that specimens from the same animal would be correctly related. 

After the hunt the hunters left specimens at the checking station 
and jaws were aged by the wear-class method. All specimens were labelled and 
the eyes were injected with 10% formalin. Although there was in each year at 
least one other competent moose "ager" at the checking station, all of the 
jaws used in this study were classified by me. I believe that this reduced 
much of the bias in this subjective aging technique. 

After the hunt, specimens were transported to the laboratory at Maple 
and I again classified them to wear-class. Any specimens whose classification 
did not conform to that made at the checking station were examined a third time 
and a final decision was made. 

At the Maple laboratory two central incisors were extracted by placing 
the anterior quarter of the mandible in boiling water for about 45 minutes. 
After this length of time the gum tissue had softened suf ff iciently to allow 
the incisors to be extracted by prying with a stiff knife or screwdriver. 

The extracted incisors were then placed in labelled envelopes and 
allowed to dry for at least 30 minutes. The teeth were then ready for 
sectioning using a circular saw (3 inches in diam. , .01 inches thickness and 
24 teeth per inch; Circular Tool Co. Inc., Providence 5, R.I.). A wooden 
holder was used to clamp the incisors and hold them rigid while being cut with 
the circular saw. Every effort was made to cut the teeth as close to the longi- 
tudinal median line as possible. The longitudinal cut usually extended the 
length of the root. A single transverse cut then separated the enamel covered 
cusp from the cementum covered root. This cutting process usually took about 
40 seconds and about 90 teeth could be processed in this manner in an hour. 

The teeth of older animals were then polished by manually rubbing 
them about 15 times over a piece of very fine emery paper. This was seldom 
necessary for the teeth from animals five years or less in age. Polishing 
greatly facilitated the counting of cementum rings in teeth of older animals. 

Cementum ring counts were made in much the same manner as that described 
by Sergeant and Pimlott (1959). Teeth were dipped in 70% alcohol and then mounted, 
cut surface up, in a small piece of plasticene. Readings were made with a 
Bausch and Lomb binocular microscope, usually at 30X magnification. A high 
degree of confidence was placed in cementum ring counts up to six. As the number 
of rings increases the opportunity for error does also. For this reason, 
as suggested by Sergeant and Pimlott (1959), the ages over six years, even when 
established twice, should be considered as having an error of plus or minus one 
year. 

Eye lenses were processed at Maple by extracting them from the eye, 
blotting them on paper towelling, removing excess tissue, and placing them 
in a thermostatically controlled oven preheated to 80°C. After some preliminary 
trials ic was found that at least eight days were required to dry the lenses. 

They were then removed from the oven and weighed to the nearest 0.1 
mg. on an Ainsworth chain balance. 



27 



RESULTS 

Wear-Classes vs. Cementum Ring Counts 

All yearlings were aged by tooth eruption and it is not conceced that 
there was any chance for error in aging this group. At the season that my 
specimens were collected, about 15% of the yearlings still had caps of the 
deciduous premolars in place and an incomplete complement of permanent incisiform 
teeth. The remainder of the yearlings were easily identified by the fact that 
permanent premolars were either not in place or if they were, staining of these 
new teeth was still inconspicuous. Also, the third molar usually was still in 
the process of eruption. 

A total of 352 jaws from animals older than yearlings formed the 
sample used to compare cementum ring counts with wear-class pattern. The 
comparison between ages (cementum ring counts) and wear-classes is shown in 
Figure 1 and in Table 1. 

It is obvious that wear-classes (WC) II, III and IV are made up mainly 
of single age classes (AC) (89.7% of WC II are AC 2; 85.4% of WC III are AC 3 
and 88.1% of WC IV are age AC 4). Starting with WC V, however, there are an 
increasing number of age classes in each wear-class. This, of course, is what 
we should expect from criteria based on wear patterns of molariform teeth, 
because irregularities in tooth wear patterns have an opportunity to become 
increasingly apparent as the animal becomes older. 

In Table 2 I have compared the average ages of each of the groups of 
jaws as assigned to wear-classes with the estimated ages suggested by Passmore 
et al (1955). 

The close agreement is obvious and I think rather surprising. It 
must be emphasized that the original ages assigned to the wear-classes were not 
based on known-age specimens whereas there appears to be good reason to treat 
cementum ring counts as annul i. 



Eye Lens Weights vs. Cementum Rin g Counts 

Calves and yearlings were aged entirely on the basis of tooth eruption 
and replacement patterns, but I consider that this technique is objective and 
of equal validity as cementum ring counts. I have, therefore, included calves 
and yearlings in my comparisons with eye lens weights. 

During the 1965 and 1966 seasons a total of 249 usable eye lenses with 
corresponding incisors was obtained. 

A difference in lens weights between sexes has been determined for 
some of the species studied, e.g., fur seals (Bauer et al , 1964), black-tailed 
deer (Longhurst, 1964) with males having heavier weights than females of the 
same age. 

Table 3 compares means of lens weights for bull and cow moose from 
six months to five and one-half years. Older animals were not used in this table 
due to small sample sizes. 

It appears from these data that there are no significant differences 
in lens weights between bulls and cows. On the basis of this I have combined 
lens weights of males and females within each class to get age class means. 

Figure 2 shows the relationship between age (number of cementum rings) 
and lens weights. Means and standard deviations for age classes are shown in 
Table 4. 



28 



Table 1. Comparison between wear-class and cementum ring counts 



Wear- 
Class 



2 3 4 5 



II 61 6 1 
III 3 41 4 

1 52 5 1 

35 16 6 2 2 

2 9 18 8 5 

5 11 



IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 



No. of 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Specimens 



68 

48 
59 
61 
42 

1 1 33 
5 2 2 21 

2 7 2 3 2 2 20 



8 4 3 

3 2 7 

2 



Table 2. Comparison of actual average ages in wear-classes and those estimated 
by Passmore, Peterson and Cringan, 1955 



Wear-Class 



Sample Size 


Actual Average 
Age ( Yrs . ) 


68 


2.62 


48 


2.52 


59 


4.60 


61 


6.18 


42 


7.62 


33 


10.62 


21 


13.38 


20 


15.4 



Estimated 
Age (Yrs.) 



II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 



2.5 
3.5 
4.5 
6.0 
7.5 
9.0 
12.5 
16.0 



Table 3. Comparison of moose eye lens weights by sex and age 



86 



Age (Yrs) Sample Size x (gm) 



Z$ : 

Sample Size x (gm) 



2% 
3% 
4% 



13 


.3182 


51 


.5205 


11 


.5795 


10 


.6249 


13 


.6928 


10 


.6945 



11 


.3245 


45 


.5186 


9 


.5891 


11 


.6386 


10 


.6774 


3 


.7163 



29 



Table 4. Lens weight means and standard deviations by age class 

Age (Yrs.) or No. Sample 

of Cementum Rings Size X gm Sd. 

h 

lh 

2k 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

Table 5. Lens weight ranges assigned to age classes (based on standard 

deviations ) 

Lens Wt~! (gm.) 
Age Class Lower Limit Upper Limit 

k .2977 .4178* 

Ik .4179* .5542 

2\ .5543 . .5976 

3% ..5977 .6595 

kh .6596 .6998 

5% .6999 ,7273 

6% .7274 .7558 

1\ .7559 .7820 

8% .7821 .7910 

9h .7911 .8192 



26 


.3202 


.0202 


97 


.5196 


.0223 


20 


.5838 


.0198 


22 


.6309 


.0295 


25 


.6873 


.0289 


13 


.6995 


.0225 


8 


.7532 


.0216 


7 


.7588 


.0216 


3 


.7856 


.0113 


6 


.8001 


.0136 


5 


.8457 


.0173 


2 


.8480 


.0695 


2 


.8121 


.0617 


5 


.8471 


.0153 


4 


.8527 


.0310 


4 


.8827 


.0326 



No overlap (.4178 mid point between upper C.I. for h and lower C.I. for lh) 

30 



With the exception of the 11 and 12 year age groups, the two with the 
smallest sample size, the plotting of means closely approximates a growth curve. 

The data suggest that moose eye lenses grow for the life of the animal. 
The heaviest lens weighed to date (0.9297 gm). was from a 15 year old bull. 
The oldest moose from which I have a lens was a cow with 19 cementum rings. 
Its lens weighed 0.8853 gm. 

It is obvious from Figure 2 that although there is an increase in lens 
weight with age, there is a considerable overlap in lens weights among age 
classes. This indicates that, with the exception of calves and yearlings, it 
would be difficult to separate all animals within a single age class on the 
basis of eye lens weights. However, the data suggest that it should be possible 
to classify a sample of animals into age group classes in much the same way 
that the wear-class method does. 

If lens weights are to be used to determine age, one has to obtain a 
range of weights for each age class which do not overlap those of adjacent 
age classes. Since there is overlap, some arbitrary division point between 
successive age classes must be obtained. Using the 1965 and 1966 data I ob- 
tained such ranges to define age classes up to and including 9% years. The 
method which I used was based on the 95% confidence intervals. 

To calculate the dividing line between weights for successive age 
classes, the amount of overlap between the upper confidence interval of the 
younger class and the lower confidence interval of the adjacent older age class 
was determined. This was divided evenly into two parts. The figure obtained 
was subtracted from the upper confidence interval of the younger class and 
also from the lower confidence interval of the older age class. 

Arbitrary ranges for lens weights for age classes calculated in this 
manner are shown in Table 5. 

I did not include age groups over 9^ years in these calculations because 
with increasing age the number of samples decreased and as a result, estimates 
of variance within an age class became less sound. At the same time the 
differences between successive means on the growth curve decreased with each 
older age-class. 

Table 6 shows the age-class composition of a sample based on cementum 
ring counts or tooth eruption patterns (for calves and yearlings) and the age- 
class composition based on use of lens weights. 

It is apparent that the lens weight method gives a good approximation of 
the age-class distribution as determined by cementum ring counts. It is probably 
significant that the point where variation between the two increases, is also 
the point where sample sizes become very small. 

I suspect that with a larger sample of eye lenses from older animals 
much of this variation would disappear. 

Low and Cowan (1963) reported seeing extra lines in the cementum which 
they presumed were associated with physiological changes occurring during the 
rut. They stated, however, that this did not complicate age determination. 
Recently, workers in Alaska reported seeing "rut lines" in bull moose incisor 
teeth (Minutes of Moose Meeting held in Winnipeg, Manitoba, March 21 and 22, 
1966). I looked for these as I also considered them to be a potential source 
of error in making ring counts. This did not appear to be a problem with my 
data. An indication of this is the lens weights by sexes for each age. As 
we have seen there were no differences between male and female lens weights 
in calves and yearlings (two age groups where the individuals probably would 
not have experienced the physiological condition implied by the name rut line). 
From this it seems logical to assume that male and female lens weights for any 
given age should be equal, and if an error was being introduced in older age 
classes by counting "rut lines", then male lens weights within an age class 
should be lighter than females. Analysis of the limited raw data for older 
moose does not indicate that males were being assigned to age classes above 
where they belonged, any more frequently than were females. 

31 



Table 6. Comparison of age class distributions based on cementum ring counts 
(C.R.C.) and on Lens weight (L.W.) 



Estimated 


Age 






Using C. 


R.C. 




Using L.W. 




k 








26 








26 




1% 








97 








92 




2% 








20 








22 




3k 








20 








24 




4% 








24 








24 




5h 








13 








13 




ek 








8 








3 




-Ik 








6 








9 




sh 








3 








2 




9% 








- 








2 




Table 7. 


Comparison of 


three 


methods used to age 


moose 








Estimated 
Age 




Cementum Ring 
Method * 


Lens Weight 
Method 


We 


ar-Class 
Method 


Wear- 
Class 


k 




26 






26 




26 




k 


ik 




97 






92 




97 




I 


Ik 




20 






22 




25 




II 


3k 




20 






24 




15 




III 


4% 




24 






24 




28 




IV 


5k 




13 






13 




17 




V 


ek 




8 






3 




9 




VI 


ik 




6 






9 




- 






%k 




3 






2 




- 






9k 




- 






2 




- 







Calves and yearlings aged by tooth eruption only 



32 



Comparison of the Three Methods Used to Age Moose 

Once again assuming that cementum ring counts give accurate estimates 
of age, it is now possible to compare the results obtained by using each 
of the three techniques. Table 7 shows a comparison based on a classifica- 
tion of 217 specimens which could be aged by lens weights, wear-class, 
tooth eruption (123 calves and yearlings) and cementum ring counts. Since 
the possibility for error in aging calves and yearlings by either a gross 
examination of the incisors or an examination of extracted incisors for 
cementum rings is considered to be negligible, I have included the 123 calves 
and yearlings in the cementum ring method column, for reasons I discussed 
earlier in this paper. 

It is apparent that the lens weight method gives a closer approximation 
of the age class distribution as determined by the cementum ring counts 
than does the wear-class method. However, it is important to recognize 
that the wear-class method will give 100% agreement with the cementum ring 
count method for the important yearling class, while in this sample the lens 
weight method gives 95% agreement. 

As mentioned before, it is reasonable to suspect that with more lens 
samples in the older age classes, considerable refining of the lens weight 
criteria should occur and bring the older classes more in agreement with 
the "actual" ages. Even with the crude estimates for animals older than 5% 
years, it is interesting to see that the cementum ring. method indicates 
17 moose over 5\ years old while the eye lens method indicates 16. Using 
the estimated ages given by Passmore et al (1955), the wear-class method 
indicates 26 moose 5% years old and older while the cementum ring count 
and lens weight methods show 30 and 29 respectively. 

An apparent advantage of the lens weight method over the wear-class 
method is that it gives more points on the regression line to use for 
calculation of mortality rates etc. Another advantage of the lens weight 
method over the wear-class method, is that even though the division point 
between respective weight classes is arbitrary the application of the 
criteria is completely objective , i .e. , the lens is a definite weight. On 
the other hand, the wear-class method relies on arbitrary criteria and 
a subjective application. 

Most of the specimens which we use are submitted by hunters. One of 
the main reasons that hunters bring lower jaws in at our request is their own 
curiosity as to the age of the animal which they have killed. At the present 
time, at least, neither the lens weight method nor cementum ring count method 
is a field technique for aging. This means that hunters will not be able 
to find out on the spot the approximate ages of their animals if they 
bring only an eye or a set of incisor teeth. I suspect co-operation from 
hunters would not be as good as it now is, if they were not immediately 
given an estimate of their moose's age. This then is the main obvious 
advantage of using the wear-class method to age moose. 

On the other hand, if hunters could be convinced that although 
their animals can not be aged immediately, the results of the laboratory 
study will be sent to them, it may be possible to dispense with the wear- 
class method. Certainly it is easier for a hunter to remove an eye from 
a moose than it is to cut out a lower jaw. This plus the saving in space 
and weight might result in a higher number of samples from hunter-killed 
moose. At the same time using eye lenses might result in a more unbiased 
collection of age data, i.e., many bull moose heads are brought through 
the checking station each year and these can only be classified as a 
large adult or a very large adult. For obvious reasons, trophy hunters are 
reluctant to give us the lower jaw from their trophy. I doubt that many 
care whether they take their trophy home with the eyes intact. 

Undoubtedly, the cementum ring method is the best one available to age 
moose but it too is subject to the same sort of bias, although to a lesser 
degree, as that atrributed to the wear-class method, i.e., some trophy 
hunters are reluctant to allow the moose's mouth to be damaged. 



33 



In conclusion, I suggest that the most reliable method available 
to age moose appears to be by counting cementum rings in the first incisor(s) 
The lens weight method appears very promising and may actually be better 
than the wear-class method now generally being used since it may provide 
a better separation to age class. The wear-class method is probably 
good enough to provide the sort of information that management wants and it 
is apparently no better or worse than Passmore et al (1955) suggested at 
the time they described the criteria. 

The advantages and disadvantages of each technique should also be 
weighed against the feasibility of collecting each type of specimen from 
hunters . 

Acknowledgment s 

I am grateful to many Fish and Wildlife Branch personnel, particularly 
Messrs. A. Armstrong, K. Chambers, D. Hagan, B. Saunders, R. McGillvary 
and C. Hanson, who assisted in contacting hunters and collecting specimens 
at the checking station. Messrs. R. 0. Standfield and H. G. Gumming kindly 
read over the manuscript and offered constructive criticism. 

Special thanks go to the many moose hunters who provided me with 
the raw data. 

Literature Cited 

Bauer, R. D., M. Johnson and B. Scheffer. 1964. Eye lens weight and age 
in the fur seal. J. Wildl. Mgmt . 28(2); 374-376. 

Beale, D. M. 1962. Growth of the eye lans in relation to age in fox squirrels 
J. Wildl. Mgmt. 26(2); 208-211. 

Dudzinski, M.L. and R. Mykytowycz. 1961. The eye lens as an indicator of age 
in the wild rabbit in Australia. C.S.I.R.C. Wildl. Res. 6(2); 156-159 

Gilbert, F. F. 1966. Aging white-tailed deer by annuli in the cementum 
of the first incisor. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 30(1); 200-202 

Kolenosky, G. B. and R. S. Miller. 1962. Growth of the lens of the pronghorn 
antelope. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 26(1); 112-113. 

Longhurst, W. M. 1964. Evaluation of the eye lens technique for aging 
Columbian black—tailed deer. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 28(4); 773-784. 

Lord, R. D., Jr. 1959. The lens as an indicator of age in cottontail 
rabbits. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 23(3); 358-360. 

1961. The lens as an indicator of age in the gray fox. J. Mamm 

42(1); 109-111. 



1962. Aging deer and determination of their nutritional status by 

the lens technique. Proc. 1st. Natl. White-tailed deer Disease 
Symposium, Athens, Ga. ; 89-93 

Low, Wm. A. and I. McT. Cowan. 1963. Age determination of deer by annular 
structure of dental cementum. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 27(3); 466-471. 

Malinow, M. R. and Ann Corcoran. 1966. Growth of the lens in howler monkeys 
. (Alouatta caraya ) . J. Mamm. 47(1); 58-63 

McEwan, E. H. 1963. Seasonal annuli in the cementum of the teeth of barren 
ground caribou. Can. J. Zoo. 41(1); 111-113. 

Nellis, C.H. 1966. Lens weights of mule deer fetUses. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 
30(2); 417-419. 

Passmore, R.C., R. L. Peterson and A. T. Cringan. 1955. A study of 
mandibular tooth wear as an index to age of moose. 

34 



Appendix "A"; 223-238 in North American moose by R. L. Peterson. 
Toronto. Univ. of Toronto Press, xi + 280 pp. 

Ransom, A. B. 1966. Determining age of the white-tailed deer from layers 
in cementum of molars. J. Wildl. Mgmt . 39(1); 197-199. 

Sanderson, G. C. 1961. The lens as an indicator of age in the raccoon. 
The Amer. Midi. Nat. 65(2); 481-485. 

Sergeant, D. E. and D. H. Pimlott. 1959. Age determination in moose from 
sectioned incisor teeth. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 23(3); 315-321. 

Simkin, D. W. 1965. Reproduction and productivity of moose in northwestern 
Ontario. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 29(4): 740-750. 



35 



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37 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF A UNIT FOR SECTIONING 
MOOSE INCISORS 



by 



E. F. Mantle 
Wildlife Management Officer 
Sault Ste. Marie District 



INTRODUCTION 

The incisor section aging method has proven to be more accurate than 
the wear class method for determining the age class structure of the moose herd. 
Not only are age determinations more defintie but the handling and storing of 
incisors is neater, cleaner and more compact. Incisor teeth may be kept on 
file (as are fish scales) for reference at a later date. 

Faced with the problem of developing a suitable machine for processing 
four to five hundred incisors annually, the market was searched for a sturdy, 
portable power grinder which could be adapted for this purpose. 

The only other device seen previously was bulky, mounted permanently 
on a work bench and was devoid of safety guards on the blades and grinding wheels. 
Further, due to a rather crude arrangement for clamping the teeth and feeding 
them into the saw, blades were frequently broken. 

METHOD 

Following examination of a number of bench grinders, the model 71507 
grinder manufactured by the Manning- Bowman Division of the McGraw-Edison Company 
of Boonville, Mo., U.S.A., was purchased. The machine has twin grinding wheels 
complete with guards, a water tray, self-contained 115 Volt AC60 cycle motor, 
built-in work light and weighs 9.75 lbs. 

Jewellers slotting saws, size 3" diameter x .010 thickness x %" 
diameter spindle hole were obtained. 

Spindle size in the bench grinder is 3/8" diameter. The spindle is 
fitted with a %" (outside diameter) wheel bushing (part #17 Figure l) to fit the 
hole in the grinding wheels. This bushing must be shortened to 1/16" by cutting 
off the shank, retaining the small piece so obtained for a spacer between the 
bushing and the motor housing. (See Figure 2). The bushing on the left side of 
the grinder is modified in this manner and the slotting saw mounted. 

Part #9 Figure 1, tool rest, is removed from the left side of the 
machine and discarded. Its supporting bracket, Part #11 Figure 1, is reinforced 
by drilling and tapping an additional hole (1/8" diameter) in both it and the base 
of the grinder housing and placing an additional supporting screw at this point. 
Screw hole should be made %" above the right angle bend of the supporting arm. 

Two pieces of 1" x 1" x 3/32" angle irons 3" in length are procured. 
To the first piece, a %" x 1/8" flat strip is welded to the outer edges at one 
end, drilled and tapped to receive a cut-off screw and foot assembly from a 
four inch "C" clamp. A wing-nut is welded to the top of this screw. Study detail 
of Figure 3 to clarify above. 

The second piece of angle iron is welded to the left side of the top 
of the tool rest arm (Part #11, Figure l) in a horizontal position, "V" angle 
uppermost with the centre line of the angle iron in line with the saw blade. 
Two small lugs should be left at the corners of the angle iron nearest the saw to 
act as a stop and prevent excessive forward movement of the clamp assembly. Study 
Figure 4 for details of foregoing. 

38 



OPERATION 

The crown of the incisor tooth is placed in the clamp assembly and the 
screw tightened. It may be necessary to roll the tooth slightly to one side or 
the other to obtain proper alignment of the tip of the tooth root with the saw 
blade. With a little practice, teeth can be placed in the clamp and correctly 
aligned quite rapidly. 

The clamp assembly is seated in the "V" block guide, held down firmly 
and the tooth fed forward into the saw. When the tooth has been slotted to the 
desired depth it is removed from the clamp and split in half with a penknife. 

A careful study of the illustrations in Figures 1 - 4 as well as the 
accompanying photographs should clarify any questions regarding the assembly and 
operation. 

COMMENTARY AND APPRAISAL OF RESULTS 

The entire assembly has proven to be a most satisfactory unit. It is 
completely portable and may be used on a desk, table or bench; in short, anywhere 
where 60 cycle power outlets are available. Operation is very quiet and rapid; 
upwards of 400 teeth per day may be processed. In the course of sectioning 300 
moose teeth not one blade has been broken . The unit carries its own illumination 
and the grinding wheel on the right hand side is available if required. 

Caution! Odours produced by sectioning large numbers of teeth are not 
well received by District Office staff!! 

SOURCES OF SUPPLY AND COSTS 



(a) Supply 

Several retail outlets and wholesale houses handle McGraw-Edison products 

The unit we have was purchased from Canadian Tire Corporation. 

The Jewellers slotting saws are obtainable from:- 

Circular Tool Co., Inc., 

765 Aliens Avenue, 

Providence, Rhode Island, 02995, 

U.S.A. 

Angle iron scraps are probably available in many district shops but 
can in any event be purchased from dealers in scrap metals. The "C" clamp can 
be purchased at any hardware or dime store. 

(b) Costs 

Grinding unit complete $21.95 

Saw blades (approx. ) 3.00 

Angle iron & clamps (approx.) 1.50 

Labour (welding, etc.) (1 hour) a3.57 

TOTAL COST $30.02 

NOTE : This cost is less than that obtained by purchasing a motor, 
mandrel and pulleys separately and the resulting assembly is 
in no way as satisfactory. 

It is hoped that the various moose districts in the Province may find 
in the foregoing article some assistance in obtaining a suitable unit for 
sectioning and ageing moose teeth. 

ACKNOWL E DGEMENT S 

The kind assistance of R. G. Bailey, Fish and Wildlife Supervisor in 
preparing the line drawings is gratefully acknowledged. 

39 



iDER PARTS BY PART NUMBER 
!0M PARTS LIST - NOT BY 
RCLED KEY NUMBERS. 



t — ® 




GTE: Be su;s to state Mode! No., Brand Name, 

Color, Part No. on every order for Paris or Accessories for this tool. 



DETAILED P,*RTS LIST 



Fart 


Qty. 






Price 


Number 


Unit 


Description 

Grinder — complete 




Each 


A901-26 


1 


Power Cord (2 Conductor) 




1.75 


A901-55' 


1 


Power Cord (3 Conductor) 




2.50 


A71 1-234 


1 


Grinding Wheel, Coarse 




1.30 


A71 1-233 


1 


Grinding Wheel, Fine 




1.30 


A71 1-312 


2 


Eye Shield 




.15 


A7H-313 


2 


Spring — Eysshield 




.04 


F13-8-3f;N 


2 


Screw — Eye Shield 




.10 


A71 1-108 


1 


lamp 




.30 


A7 11-304 


2 


Tool Rest 




.20 


A7 18-373 


2 


Carriage Bolt 




.10 


A71 1-305 


1 


Arm, Tool Rest (Left Hand) 




.20 


A9 12-25 


6 


Screw — Arm and Bearing Clamp, Sec 


■ ring .10 


A71 1-301 


2 


Knob 




.16 


A7U-306 


1 


Arm, Tool Rest (Right Hand) 




.20 


A7 11-103 


1 


Wheel Nut — Left Hand 




.10 


A711-101 


2 


Wheel Washer 




.30 


A711-3C0 


2 


Wheel Bushing 




.12 


A/ 11-120 


1 


Wheel Nut — Rijjht Hand 




.10 


G71 1-291-1 


1 


Cov«;r Housing (Work-lite Mod 


el) 


2.80 


G71 1-291 


1 


Cover Housing (StanJard Med 


-'!) 


2.50 


G71 1-290 


1 


Main Mctor Housing 




3.20 


D7 11-292 


1 


Lamp Cover 




.50 


A9 12-21 


1 


Power Switch 




.75 


E711-F5 


1 


Rotor and Fan Assembly 




3.25 


A7 11-307 


2 


Snap uing 




.04 


A718-131 


1 


Spocer Washer 




.04 


A7 11-309 


2 


Beijing 




.30 


A711-303 


2 


Dealing Clamp 




.10 


Foi~-R4-jSN 


2 


Rivet — Switch Securi-ig 




.02 


L711-;2C 


1 


Sfc.tor Asiemb'y — corrpleto 




4.50 


A71 1-243 


1 


Lamp P.cc^ptocl-.' 




.75 


A711-119 


1 


Screw — Receptacle Securing 




.10 


A71 1-321 


2 


Screw ard Washer — Larip 


Covor 


.10 


B71 1-294 


1 


Wheel Guard Cover — Left 


llcnd 


.60 


F13-3-5RN 


2 


Screw — V.'ho'.'l Gucrd Cov>r 




.10 


BVli-295 


1 


Wheel Giard Cover — Rlr.ht 


Cb-id 


.60 


A71 1-136 


2 


Wire Connector 




.10 



37 

38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 



A71 1-310 

A901-66 
37068 
A71 1-323 
A718-378 
55M297A 
A7 11-335 



Screw — Stator Securing 


.10 


Screw — Housing Securing 


.10 


Foot — Rubber 


.06 


Screw — Foot Securing 


.02 


Washer 


.20 


Spring Washer (Opposite End) 


.02 


Oil Retaining Pad 


.02 


CESSORIES AVAILABLE 






Prlco 


Description 


Each 


4%" Cotton Buff 


1.30 


4%" Wire Wheel 


1.30 


Tube Buffing P.ougo 


.70 


4" Eack-up Di:c, P.ubbrr 


.50 


Lambswool Bonne), 4?i" 


1.C0 


Sanding Disc — Fine, Pkg. 12 


.75 


Sanding Disc — Coarse, Pkg. 12 


1.00 


Countersink 


.50 


Set of 9 Carbon Twist Drills 


1.24 


Sand Disc Pattorn 


.05 


V*" Hand-Tits Chuck 


1.25 


5 pc. Arbor Assembly 


.40 


Adapter plug (For 3 conductor cord) 


.60 



.. 40 -- 



Part 

Number 

70412 

70411 

70413 

568 

577 

578-% 

578-1% 

582 

70418 

618 

643 

M2 

A7 17-327 



NOTE: Although the adapter plug and other above listed accessories arc not 
included with your tool, they are available from tho Power Tool 
Division. 

MATERIALS AND PRICES ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT 
NOTICE 

ORDERING Or REPLACEMENT PARTS 

When ordering replacement parts: state mode) number of the tool, 
part number and name of the part as shown on the parts list and mail 
to: POWER TOOL DIVISION', BOONVILLE, MISSOURI 65233. 
IMPORTANT! Prices shown arc prices for each part. Where more 
than one of the same part is required, multiply the price each by the 
quantity needed. 

To facilitate speedy handling of you; request, attach your check or 
money order in the correct amount to your order. Any order of parts 
totaling under SI. 00 will be shipped at our minimum charge of $1.00 
plus postage and insurance. 



FIGURE 3 



FIGURE 2 



J\ 



/ 



/ 



CUT AND RETAIN BOTH PIECES 




SLIDE AND END VIEWS 
OF CLAMP ASSEMBLY 



FIGURE 4 



STOP LUGS —**--. 




V GUIDE WELDED TO TOOL REST 
ARM (SEE TEXT) 



41 




CONVERTED MANNING- BOWMAN 
BENCH GRINDER 




CLAMP WITH MOOSE TEETH 



42 



liDKl X.13H 




CUTTING MOOSE INCISOR 



43 



SNOWMOBILES - A NEW PHASE OF OUTDOOR 
RECREATION . 



by 

J. A. Van der Meer 

The short paper I am about to present is not intended to be a 
comprehensive breakdown of snowmobile growth statistics nor a detailed study 
and evaluation of the problems inherent in this growth. Rather it is intended 
as an introduction to the subject of snowmobiles to focus our attention on what 
appears to be a new phase of outdoor recreation. 

Snow vehicles of one kind or another have existed almost as long 
as the automobile but these were large truck- or tank-like machines used primarily 
for transporting supplies in the far north. Then, in 1959, Bombardier 
produced 250 of the modern type of snowmobile, a small tracked vehicle steered 
by skis, and capable of carrying 2 or 3 persons on an open seat. Last year, 
Bombardier's production had increased to 85,000 of these machines. Bombardier 
is the largest snowmobile manufacturer in the world, but there are a total of 
over 50 manufacturers in North America with others importing to the continent, 
especially from Japan. 

The variety of machines is vast. Horsepower ratings are from 
6 to 50 horsepower, with 10 to 25 horsepower being most popular. Speeds of 35 
miles per hour are common, and competition models are now achieving speeds of 
over 80 miles per hour. Some of these machines are capable of pulling over 
2000 pounds; and a variety of accessories such as reverse gears, electric starters, 
turn signals and trailers, make it possible to fulfil almost any persons' tastes, 
desires or requirements. 

And how are all of these varieties of snowmobiles being accepted 
in Ontario? In 1967 there were 20,000 snowvehicles sold in Ontario, in 1968 
- 25,000 and in 1969 sales are expected to reach 32,000. There are, at present, 
almost 100,000 snow vehicles registered in Ontario. This is more than the numbers 
of motorcycles in the Province, and is almost 1/4 of the number of registered 
motor boats. With motor boats selling at a rate of 20,000 per year, and snow 
vehicle sales approaching 30,000 units per year, it should not be long until the 
snow vehicles catch up in numbers to Outboards. 

What are these machines used for? Originally they were designed 
as a utility vehicle to aid in trapping, hunting, fishing and general winter 
travel. However, they soon became a plaything of the public, drawing thousands 
of persons out of the house into the winter weather; thousands of people who 
formerly sat at home on weekends and evenings in front of thousands of T.V. sets. 

Present figures state that 12% of the snow vehicles are used for 
utility purposes alone, another 12% primarily for hunting and fishing, and 76% 
for general recreation. 

That means there are 76,000 snowmobilers , as well as those with 
unregistered machines, and machines from the States, who are looking to Ontario 
for places to snowmobile. Northerners have little problem, as Crown land is 
everywhere, and is generally open for snowmobile use. Southerners, though, have 
a tougher time finding the "wide open spaces" required for operating their machines 

This booklet, "Snowmobiling - where to go in Ontario" by the 
Ontario Safety League, lists 58 places in Ontario where snowmobiling is allowed. 
Twenty-three of these rent snow machines for $25 to $35 per day or from $3 to 
$10 per hour, (an average of $6.50 per hour). Almost everyone of these 58 areas 
has trails developed. Twenty-one charge for trail use, with prices ranging from 

Paper presented at Southern Region Parks Meeting, February 4 & 5, 
1969. 

44 



$1 to $5 for entry, or from 75c per hour to $3 per hour for trail use. Some of 
the other areas have no charge for trail use but instead have membership fees 
which must be paid before an area can be used. 

These fifty-eight places are only a few of those that are opening 
up their properties for snowmobile use. Lodges which once closed after hunting 
season and re-opened around May are now open year round, supplying accommodation, 
food, fuel, and travel areas to snowmobilers . Marinas now continue their operation 
into the winter, offering their facilities, at a price, to the snowmobiler. 
Almost all establishments that once had heavy summer use with a greatly diminished 
winter use are finding that they can operate year round at full capacity because 
of the numbers now in recreation areas with snow machines. These establishments 
also include hotels, motels, garages, restaurants and numerous others along the 
transportation arteries to and from the resort or recreation areas. 

It may appear, then, that the private and commercial establish- 
ments are catching up to the initial boom in snowmobile use, and are beginning 
to supply all that is required. This, unfortunately, is not the case. The 
average size of commercial snowmobile areas is 100 acres or less, with an average 
trail length, where these exist, of about 3 miles. Where longer trails do exist, 
there is little consideration given to legalities (such as travelling on 
restricted highways), to safety (two-way traffic on single-lane trails, or crossing 
water bodies), or land ownership (many trails cross privately owned land, especially 
that with absentee-owners). 

The nature of the snowmobile makes it possible, and fun, to 
explore new areas and to travel long distances. Once a snowmobiler has travelled 
a short trail, or even a long one repeatedly, he looks for new areas, new trails. 
Where these do not exist, he is apt to improvise and to travel anywhere possible 
disregarding legal and safety considerations. In the Lindsay District there is 
at least one group that has started making night runs of 50 to 80 miles, starting 
at 8 p.m. and returning around 4 a.m. For a lack of trails in the area to 
travel and explore, they have added the risk of night travel to increase their 
snowmobiling thrill. 

The fact that there is a lack of use areas for these machines 
is also illustrated in the Lindsay District in portions of the County Forests 
designated for snowmobile use. Many weekends see two to three hundred machines 
per day travelling over a limited number of trails and roads, often involved 
in minor accidents with one another. And yet they come back repeatedly to areas 
like this, often from many miles, because these are some of the few places not 
posted as private property, or not charging fees for their use. 

Snowmobiles are becoming in the winter time what motor boats 
are in the summer, the centre of a seasonal type of recreation. The motor-boater 
in Ontario has lakes of every size and description, -and can choose between a 
small lake for a fast spin, or large interconnected chains of lakes and rivers 
for long trips. The snowmobiler needs the same numbers and varieties of use 
areas to realize the potential of his machine. 

The commercial establishments are making the "small lakes" or 
areas for raring and testing snowmobiles. The snowmobiling public is looking 
to the Department of Lands & Forests to develop the large areas, and longer 
connected trails , as well as some small use areas where most of the land is 
privately owned, such as around Oshawa or Trenton. 

In the Lindsay District, as well as the forementioned County Forest 
Areas, designated portions of Provincial Parks and non-designated areas of 
public land are being used for these machines. Upon inquiry to Law Branch, we 
were informed by Mr. Grant Ferguson that the Department insurance policy has 
been extended to cover Provincial Parks, County Forests, and Recreation areas 
on a year round basis. This generally frees us from worry about liability in 
case of accidents, except in the case of public land use. If we direct persons 
across public lands, does this land become a Recreation Area, or is a further 
expansion of the policy required to give us protection? This is just one of the 
questions that requires study before major action is taken in this field. Some 
of the other things needing consideration are as follows :- 



45 



Exactly what type of trails or areas are required, 
how many, and where are these needed; What facilities are 
necessary; What type of supervision; What types and numbers 
of patrols; What will the general administration be; 
Is it possible to design a trail marker and entrance sign design 
that will identify areas across the Province as being 
Department sponsored? 

These questions and many others are going to require our attention if we are to 
begin to cope with the use of snowmobiles in Ontario. 

Commercial enterprises are beginning to adjust to another season 
of recreation. Pressure is being applied, too, on the Department of Lands & Forests 
to adjust to a full year of recreation and begin designing facilities and services 
for the winter as well as the summer. 

REFERENCES : 

1. The Canadian Outdoorsman - Vol. 7 No. 5. 

2. Kawartha Visitor Guide - Vol. 2 No. 1. 

3. Outboard Marine Corporation - Peterborough. 

4. Park Maintenance - Vol. 21 No. 12. 

5. The Snowmobile and Recreational Land Use - H. R. Timmermann 

6. Snowmobiling - where to go in Ontario? - Ontario Safety League 



46